The astrologer tells the customer that he must stop looking for the man who stabbed him so long ago, because to do so would be dangerous, and anyway, the perpetrator is dead. The customer, not recognizing the astrologer, is impressed that he should know about his past. When the astrologer goes home, his wife asks about his day. He tells her that he has been relieved of a great load; he had once thought that he had killed someone, but had today discovered that the victim was well and very much alive.
The wife is mystified, but the astrologer goes to bed for an untroubled night of sleep. The Uses of Irony Can we always tell the difference between good and evil? Are good people always good and evil people always bad? Narayan provides no answers to these questions. In the world he creates here, almost nothing is what it seems to be, and one unexpected event follows another—for both readers and characters.
The author uses irony to build suspense during the fortunetelling scene. When Nayak challenges the astrologer to answer some specific questions about his future, we expect the astrologer to fail, since he is, according to the narrator, a fraud. Instead, the astrologer produces a surprising amount of accurate information about Nayak, including his name.
He knows that Nayak is from the north, and he knows that long ago Nayak was stabbed, thrown into a well, and left for dead. Once the astrologer recognizes Nayak, however, he uses the truth to deceive him. Every situation in this story takes an unexpected twist. Nothing turns out as we, or the characters, expect. First, an astrologer who satisfies his customers with the things he says is revealed as a fake. Then, the fraud suddenly seems to have supernatural knowledge. Toynbee Unit-III 2. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Enter your comment here Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:.
Archaeological finds date back to the Neolithic period, documents first mention the city in the early second millennium BC. Palmyra changed hands on a number of occasions between different empires before becoming a subject of the Roman Empire in the first century AD; the city grew wealthy from trade caravans.
Palmyra's wealth enabled the construction of monumental projects, such as the Great Colonnade , the Temple of Bel , the distinctive tower tombs. Ethnically, the Palmyrenes combined elements of Amorites and Arabs ; the city's social structure was tribal, its inhabitants spoke Palmyrene, while using Greek for commercial and diplomatic purposes. Greco-Roman culture influenced the culture of Palmyra, which produced distinctive art and architecture that combined eastern and western traditions; the city's inhabitants worshiped local Semitic deities and Arab gods.
By the third century AD Palmyra had become a prosperous regional center. The king was succeeded by regent Queen Zenobia , who rebelled against Rome and established the Palmyrene Empire.
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In , Roman emperor Aurelian destroyed the city, restored by Diocletian at a reduced size; the Palmyrenes converted to Christianity during the fourth century and to Islam in the centuries following the conquest by the 7th-century Rashidun Caliphate , after which the Palmyrene and Greek languages were replaced by Arabic. Before AD , Palmyra enjoyed autonomy and was attached to the Roman province of Syria , having its political organization influenced by the Greek city-state model during the first two centuries AD; the city became a Roman colonia during the third century, leading to the incorporation of Roman governing institutions, before becoming a monarchy in Following its destruction in , Palmyra became a minor center under the Byzantines and empires, its destruction by the Timurids in reduced it to a small village.
Under French Mandatory rule in , the inhabitants were moved into the new village of Tadmur , the ancient site became available for excavations. Aramaic Palmyrene inscriptions; the etymology of the name is unclear. It is believed that "Palmyra" derives from "Tadmor" and two possibilities have been presented by linguists. According to the suggestion by Schultens, "Palmyra" could have arisen as a corruption of "Tadmor", via an unattested form "Talmura", changed to "Palmura" by influence of the Latin word palma, in reference to the city's palm trees the name reached its final form "Palmyra"; the second view, supported by some philologists, such as Jean Starcky , holds that Palmyra is a translation of "Tadmor", which had derived from the Greek word for palm, "Palame".
Michael Patrick O'Connor suggested that the names "Palmyra" and "Tadmor" originated in the Hurrian language; as evidence, he cited the inexplicability of alterations to the theorized roots of both names. According to this theory, "Tadmor" derives from the Hurrian word tad with the addition of the typical Hurrian mid vowel rising formant mar. According to this theory, "Palmyra" derives from the Hurrian word pal using the same mVr formant.
Palmyra lies km northeast of Damascus , in an oasis surrounded by palms. Two mountain ranges overlook the city. In the south and the east Palmyra is exposed to the Syrian Desert. A small wadi crosses the area, flowing from the western hills past the city before disappearing in the eastern gardens of the oasis. South of the wadi is Efqa. Pliny the Elder described the town in the 70s AD as famous for its desert location, the richness of its soil, the springs surrounding it, which made agriculture and herding possible.
Palmyra began as a small settlement near the Efqa spring on the southern bank of Wadi al-Qubur. The settlement, known as the Hellenistic settlement, had residences expanding to the wadi's northern bank during the first century. Although the city's walls enclosed an extensive area on both b. It was started as a weekly in and became a daily in , it is one of the Indian newspapers of record and the second most circulated English-language newspaper in India , after The Times of India with average qualifying sales of 1.
Most of the revenue comes from subscription; the Hindu became, in As of March , The Hindu is published from 21 locations across 11 states: Bengaluru , Hyderabad , Thiruvananthapuram , Kolkata , Coimbatore , Noida , Kochi , Tiruchirappalli , Mohali , Kozhikode , Tirupati and Patna ; the Hindu was founded in Madras on 20 September as a weekly newspaper, by what was known as the Triplicane Six consisting of 4 law students and 2 teachers:- T.
Rangacharya, P. Rangacharya, D. Kesava Rao Pantulu and N. Subba Rao Pantulu , led by G. Subramania Iyer and M. Veeraraghavacharyar, a lecturer at Pachaiyappa's College. Started in order to support the campaign of Sir T. Muthuswamy Iyer for a judgeship at the Madras High Court and to counter the propaganda against him carried out by the Anglo-Indian press, The Hindu was one of the many newspapers of the period established to protest the policies of the British Raj. About copies of the inaugural issue were printed at Srinidhi Press, Georgetown on one rupee and twelves annas of borrowed money.
Subramania Iyer became the first editor and Veera Raghavacharya, the first managing director of the newspaper; the paper was printed from Srinidhi Press but moved to Scottish Press to The Hindu Press, Mylapore. Started as a weekly newspaper, the paper became a tri-weekly in and an evening daily in A single copy of the newspaper was priced at four annas; the offices moved to rented premises at Mount Road on 3 December The newspaper started printing at its own press there, named "The National Press,", established on borrowed capital as public subscriptions were not forthcoming.
The building itself became The Hindu's in , after the Maharaja of Vizianagaram , Pusapati Ananda Gajapati Raju , gave The National Press a loan both for the building and to carry out needed expansion. The Hindu was liberal in its outlook and is now considered left leaning, its editorial stances have earned it the nickname, the'Maha Vishnu of Mount Road'. In between, there were more views than news. The partnership between Veeraraghavachariar and Subramania Iyer was dissolved in October Iyer quit the paper and Veeraraghavachariar became the sole owner and appointed C.
Karunakara Menon as editor. However, The Hindu's adventurousness began to decline in the s and so did its circulation, down to copies when the sole proprietor decided to sell out; the purchaser was The Hindu's Legal Adviser from , S. Kasturi Ranga Iyengar , a politically ambitious lawyer who had migrated from a Kumbakonam village to practise in Coimbatore and from thence to Madras.
In the late s, when its ownership passed into the hands of the family's younger members, a change in political leaning was observed.
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Joint managing director N. Murali said in July , "It is true that our readers have been complaining that some of our reports are partial and lack objectivity, but it depends on reader beliefs. Ram was appointed on 27 June as its editor-in-chief with a mandate to "improve the structures and other mechanisms to uphold and strengthen quality and objectivity in news reports and opinion pieces", authorised to "restructure the editorial framework and functions in line with the competitive environment".
On 3 and 23 September , the reader's letters column carried responses from readers saying the editorial was biased. An editorial in August observed that the newspaper was affected by the'editorialising as news reporting' virus, expressed a determination to buck the trend, restore the professionally sound lines of demarcation, strengthen objectivity and factuality in its coverage. In —88, The Hindu's coverage of the Bofors arms deal scandal, a series of document-backed exclusives, set the terms of the national political discourse on this subject; the Bofors scandal broke in April with Swedish Radio alleging that bribes had been paid to top Indian political leaders and Army officers in return for the Swedish arms manufacturing company winning a hefty contract with the Government of India for the purchase of mm howitzers.
Cowry Cowry or cowrie, plural cowries, is the common name for a group of small to large sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Cypraeidae , the cowries. The term porcelain derives from the old Italian term for the cowrie shell due to their similar appearance. Shells of certain species have been used as currency in several parts of the world, as well as being used, in the past and present extensively in jewelry, for other decorative and ceremonial purposes; the cowry was the shell most used worldwide as shell money.
Cowry shell money was important in the trade networks of Africa, South Asia , East Asia ; some species in the family Ovulidae are often referred to as cowries.
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In the British Isles the local Trivia species are sometimes called cowries; the Ovulidae and the Triviidae are somewhat related to Cypraeidae. The shells of cowries are smooth and shiny and more or less egg-shaped, with a flat under surface which shows a long, slit-like opening, toothed at the edges; the narrower end of the egg-shaped cowry shell is the anterior end. The spire of the shell is not visible in the adult shell of most species, but is visible in juveniles, which have a different shape from the adults.
Nearly all cowries have a porcelain-like shine, with some exceptions such as Hawaii's granulated cowry, Nucleolaria granulata. Many have colorful patterns. Lengths range from 5 mm for some species up to 19 cm for the Atlantic deer cowry, Macrocypraea cervus. Cowry shells Monetaria moneta, were used for centuries as currency in some parts of Africa.
After the s, however, it became more common. Western nations, chiefly through the slave trade, introduced huge numbers of Maldivian cowries in Africa; the Ghanaian unit of currency known as the Ghanaian cedi was named after cowry shells. Starting over three thousand years ago, cowry shells, or copies of the shells, were used as Chinese currency. They were used as means of exchange in India ; the Classical Chinese character for money originated as a stylized drawing of a Maldivian cowrie shell.
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Words and characters concerning money, property or wealth have this as a radical. Before the Spring and Autumn period the cowrie was used as a type of trade token awarding access to a feudal lord's resources to a worthy vassal ; the Ojibway aboriginal people in North America use cowry shells which are called sacred Miigis Shells or whiteshells in Midewiwin ceremonies, the Whiteshell Provincial Park in Manitoba, Canada is named after this type of shell.
There is some debate about how the Ojibway traded for or found these shells, so far inland and so far north distant from the natural habitat. Oral stories and birch bark scrolls seem to indicate that the shells were found in the ground, or washed up on the shores of lakes or rivers. Finding the cowry shells so far inland could indicate the previous use of them by an earlier tribe or group in the area, who may have obtained them through an extensive trade network in the ancient past.
Cowry shells are worn as jewelry or otherwise used as ornaments or charms. They are viewed as symbols of womanhood, fertility and wealth, its underside is supposed, by one modern ethnographic author, to represent an eye. Cowry shells are sometimes used in a way similar to dice, e. A number of shells are thrown, with those landing aperture upwards indicating the actual number rolled.
In Nepal cowries are used for a gambling game, where 16 pieces of cowries are tossed by four different bettors; this game is played at homes and in public during the Hindu festival of Tihar or Deepawali. In the same festival these shells are worshiped as a symbol of Goddess Lakshmi and wealth.
Cowry shells were among the devices used for divination by the Kaniyar Panicker astrologers of Kerala , India.
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On the Fiji Islands , a shell of the golden cowry or bulikula, Cypraea aurantium, was drilled at the ends and worn on a string around the neck by chieftains as a badge of rank. The women of Tuvalu use other shells in traditional handicrafts. Large cowry shells such as that of a Cypraea tigris have been used in Europe in the recent past as a darning egg over which sock heels were stretched; the cowry's smooth surface allows the needle to be positioned under the cloth more easily. In certain parts of Africa, cowries were prized charms, they were said to be associated with fecundity , sexual pleasure and good luck.
Collier's New Encyclopedia. Encyclopedia Americana. Thriller genre Thriller is a broad genre of literature and television, having numerous overlapping subgenres. Thrillers are characterized and defined by the moods they elicit, giving viewers heightened feelings of suspense , surprise and anxiety. Successful examples of thrillers are the films of Alfred Hitchcock. Thrillers keep the audience on the "edge of their seats" as the plot builds towards a climax ; the cover-up of important information is a common element.
Literary devices such as red herrings, plot twists, cliffhangers are used extensively. A thriller is a villain-driven plot, whereby he or she presents obstacles that the protagonist must overcome. Homer's Odyssey is one of the oldest stories in the Western world and is regarded as an early prototype of the genre.
Writer Vladimir Nabokov , in his lectures at Cornell University , said: "In an Anglo-Saxon thriller, the villain is punished, the strong silent man wins the weak babbling girl, but there is no governmental law in Western countries to ban a story that does not comply with a fond tradition, so that we always hope that the wicked but romantic fellow will escape scot-free and the good but dull chap will be snubbed by the moody heroine.
In short, if it "thrills", it is a thriller. As the introduction to a major anthology argues Thrillers provide such a rich literary feast. There are all kinds; the legal thriller , spy thriller, action-adventure thriller, medical thriller, police thriller, romantic thriller, historical thriller, political thriller, religious thriller, high-tech thriller, military thriller. The list goes on and on, with new variations being invented.
In fact, this openness to expansion is one of the genre's most enduring characteristics, but what gives the variety of thrillers a common ground is the intensity of emotions they create those of apprehension and exhilaration, of excitement and breathlessness , all designed to generate that all-important thrill. By definition, if a thriller doesn't thrill, it's not doing its job. Suspense is a crucial characteristic of the thriller genre, it gives the viewer a feeling of pleasurable fascination and excitement mixed with apprehension and tension.
These develop from unpredictable and rousing events during the narrative, which makes the viewer or reader think about the outcome of certain actions. Suspense builds. The suspense in a story keeps the person hooked to reading or watching more until the climax is reached. In terms of narrative expectations, it may be contrasted with surprise; the objective is to deliver a story with sustained tension, a constant sense of impending doom. As described by film director Alfred Hitchcock, an audience experiences suspense when they expect something bad to happen and have a superior perspective on events in the drama's hierarchy of knowledge, yet they are powerless to intervene to prevent it from happening.
Suspense in thrillers is intertwined with hope and anxiety, which are treated as two emotions aroused in anticipation of the conclusion - the hope that things will turn out all right for the appropriate characters in the story, the fear that they may not; the second type of suspense is the " Thriller music has been shown to create a distrust and ominous uncertainty between the viewer of a film and the character on screen at the time when the music is playing.
Common methods and themes in crime and action thrillers are ransoms, heists, kidnappings. Common in mystery thrillers are the whodunit technique. Common elements in dramatic and psychological thrillers include plot twists, psychology and mind games. Common elements of science-fiction thrillers are killing robots, machines or aliens, mad scientists and experiments.
Common in horror thrillers are serial killers, stalking and horror-of-personality. Elements such as fringe theories, false accusations and paranoia are common in paranoid thrillers. Threats to entire countries, espionage , conspiracies and electronic surveillance are common in spy thrillers. Characters may include criminals, assassins, innocent victims, menaced women, psychotic individuals, spree killers, agents, terrorists and escaped cons, private eyes, people involved in twisted relationships, world-weary men and women, psycho-fiends, more.
The themes include terrorism, political conspiracy, pursuit, or romantic triangles leading to murder. Plots of thrillers involve characters which come into conflict with each other or with outside forces; the protagonist of these films is set against a problem.
No matter what subgenre a thriller film falls into, it will emphasize the danger that the protagonist faces; the protagonists are ordinary citizens unaccustomed to danger, although in crime and action thrillers, they may be "hard men" accustomed to danger such as police officers and detectives.
While protagonists of thrillers have traditionally been men, women lead characters are common. In psychological thrillers, the protagonists are reliant on their mental resources, whether it be by battling wits with the antagonist or by battling for equilibrium in the cha. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. New York, NY: Routledge. The Hindu. May 12, Retrieved Revision History. Related Images. YouTube Videos. Cowries are generally seen on rocky areas of the sea bed. Shells of various species of cowry; all but one have their anterior ends pointing towards the top of this image.
Palmyra is an ancient Semitic city in present-day Homs Governorate, Syria. Archaeological finds date back to the Neolithic period, and documents first mention the city in the early second millennium BC. Alphabetic inscription in Palmyrene alphabet. Saffron is a spice derived from the flower of Crocus sativus, commonly known as the "saffron crocus".
The vivid crimson stigmas and styles, called threads, are collected and dried to be used mainly as a seasoning and colouring agent in food. Saffron crocus, Crocus sativus, with its vivid crimson stigmas and styles. Delicate saffron threads, plucked from crocus flowers and dried. Tilaka may be worn on a daily basis or for rites of passage or special religious occasions only, depending on regional customs. A Tilaka ceremony in progress to welcome the groom at a Hindu wedding.
Examples of Tilaks or sect-marking in British India, summarized by 19th-century scholar Russell. Thriller is a broad genre of literature, film and television, having numerous, often overlapping subgenres. Thrillers are characterized and defined by the moods they elicit, giving viewers heightened feelings of suspense, excitement, surprise, anticipation and anxiety.
A common occurrence in thrillers is characters being taken as hostage s and in need of a ransom. Malgudi Days is a collection of short stories by R.follow site
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Narayan published in by Indian Thought Publications. The book includes 32 stories, all set in the fictional town of Malgudi, located in South India. It was started as a weekly in and became a daily in A close up view of the entrance to Kasturi Buildings, the head office of The Hindu. Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population.
Its 3,, inhabitants make it the second most populous city proper of the European Union after London. The city is one of Germany's 16 federal states. Frederick the Great — was one of Europe's enlightened monarch s. Berlin became the capital of the German Empire in and expanded rapidly in the following years. Unter den Linden in Street, Berlin by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner.
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The French Crown Jewels comprise the crowns, orb, sceptres, diadems and jewels that were symbols of Royal power between and These were worn by many Kings and Queens of France. Crown of Louis XV. St John's Gate , Douglas Fairbanks, Jr. Tomb IV. Reconstitution of two members of the Tillya Tepe burial, with corresponding artifacts: man r.
An Astrologer’s Day by R.K. Narayan
The Tillya Tepe Buddhist coin , with naked deity wearing chlamys cape and petasus hat pushing the Wheel of the Law. Kabul Museum. Hundreds of thousands of South Koreans fled south in mid after the North Korean army invaded. Crew of an M tank along the Nakdong River front, August Lucas Cranach the Elder , Adam and Eve pair , c.
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